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MessageSujet: Hipoteza e Henri Kisingjerit mbi luften e uçk es   Dim 22 Mar - 7:04


Henry Kissinger ’’ ssLLiieessaabboouuttBBoossnniiaa,,KKoossoovvaaaannddTThheeBBaallkkaannss n several articles of his and interviews that he gave during the Yugoslav wars,he criticized the United States'policies in the Balkans,among other things for the recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a sovereign state, which he described as a foolish act [1] .Most importantly he dismissed the notion of Serbs,andCroats for that part, being aggressors or separatist, saying that "they can't be separatingfrom something that has never existed" [2] .In addition, he repeatedly warned the West of implicating itself in a conflict that has its roots at least hundreds of years back in time, and said that the West woulddo better if it allowed the Serbs and Croats to join their respective countries [2] . This Kissinger position and statements provoked uncounted number of articles and was subjected tothorough refutation in numerous books and studies from prominent authors like Christopher Hitchens, Andras Riedlmayer,Michael A. Sells, Noel Malcolm,Norman Cigar, Rabia Ali, Lawrence Lifschultz, toname a few among many others.Michael A. Sells,professor of comparative religion at Haverford College in Pennsylvania, is author ofseveral articles on this subject, also wrote a book [3] in which among other he refute Kissinger's assertionsabout Bosnia and its history and culture. Also in his long article "The U.S., Bosnia, and Henry Kissinger'sLie" professor Sells leave no room for doubt regarding to Kissinger's assertions [4][5][6] . Noel Malcolm, Senior Research Fellow at Oxford University since 2002, English historian, writer, and columnist, he wrote"Bosnia: A Short Historiy" [7] [8] .But most illustrious is comprehensive study of Andras Riedlmayer, HarvardUniversity Documentation Center, study on the War on Bosnian Culture, destruction of Bosnian cultureand history in Bosnian War ,describing a meticulously prepared and executed project of erasing of anytraces of ancient Bosnian culture and history [5][9][10] (also see, "Erasing the Past: The Destruction ofLibraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina - Middle East Studies Associations Bulletin, vol. 29 no. 1(July 1995), pp. 7-11" and "Killing Memory: Bosnia's Cultural Heritage and its Destruction" documentaryfilm 41 min. Haverford, PA: Community of Bosnia Foundation, 1994). Rabia Ali and Lawrence Lifschultzwrote on this subject in their book "Why Bosnia" (Pampleteer's Press, 1993). Nonetheless, Kissinger shared similarly critical views on Western involvement in Kosovo.In particular, heheld a disparaging view of the Rambouillet Agreement: The Rambouillet text, which called on Serbia to admit NATO troops throughout Yugoslavia ,was a provocation, an excuse to start bombing. Rambouillet is not a document that any Serb could have accepted. It was a terrible diplomatic document that should never have been presented in that form. — Henry Kissinger , Daily Telegraph ,June 28, 1999 However, as the Serbs did not accept the Rambouillet text and NATO bombings started, he opted for a continuation of the bombing as NATO's credibility was now at stake, but dismissed the usage ofground forces, claiming that it was not worth it [11] . 1 "Charlie Rose - A panel on the crisis in Bosnia" www.charlierose.com. 1994-11-28. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 2 "Charlie Rose - An interview with Henry Kissinger" www.charlierose.com. 1995-09-14. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 3 "The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia" University of California Press. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 4 "The U.S., Bosnia, and Henry Kissinger's Lie by Michael Sells" Foreign Affairs. 1995-10-16. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 5 "New York Times Forum - Bosnia's Cultural Heritage" www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 6 "New York Times Forum - Sells" www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 7 "Appease With Dishonor: Faulty History - Noel Malcolm, Norman Cigar, David Rieff, William E. Odom and Charles" Foreign Affairs.1995-11-11. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 8 "Is Kosovo Real: The Battle Over History Continues - Noel Malcolm, Aleksa Djilas" Foreign Affairs. 1995-11-11. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 9 "Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Bosnia 1992-1996 by Andras Riedlmayer" Cambridge, Massachusetts USA. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 10 "Andras Riedlmayer profile page with links to his works" www.h-net.org. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 11 "Charlie Rose - An hour with former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger" www.charlierose.com. 1999-04-12. Retrieved 2009-10-16. I TThheeUU..SS..,,BBoossnniiaa,,aannddHHeennrryyKKiissssiinnggeerr''ssLLiiee Michael Sells From: http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/postings/kissinger.html on July 12, 1998 Michael Sells Mon, 16 Oct 95 On the Charlie Rose Show, Sept 14, 1995, Henry Kissinger argued for what would be in effect an ethnic-partition and religious apartheid in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Kissinger urged a dividing up the countrybetween Croatia and Serbia and, in effect, forcing the Muslims (and any Bosnians who wanted a statenot based on "ethnic-cleansing") into a ghetto in the center. The basis of Kissinger's argument was hisclaim that "There is no Bosnian culture."Ironically, the person who has done most to disprove Kissinger's remark is none other than Serb GeneralRatko Mladic, who has spent four years busily trying to destroy the vast testimony to Bosnian culture.He burned down the National Library in Sarajevo with three days of shelling by incendiary grenades--the largest book burning in modern history. Over a million books and 100,000 manuscripts and rarebooks were burned, including much of the ancient South Slavic heritage of Bosnia.He selected out and shelled the Oriental Institute manuscript collection in Sarajevo, with its collectionof 5000 Bosnian manuscripts in Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Adzamijski (Bosnian Slavic writtenin Arabic script).He shelled repeatedly and deliberately the National Museum with its priceless collection of Bosnian art.A few objects, such as the Sarajevo Haggadah were saved by courageous Bosnians (Croat, Muslim,Serb, and Jewish) who risked their lives to save as much of their Bosnian cultural heritage as possible.One of his soldiers even lined up the Bosnian art collection of a Sarajevan artist (who was Serb) and"executed" them by drilling them with machine-gun fire.Mladic's soldiers selected out artists, writers, teachers, and scholars for particularly brutal tortures andkillings in his concentration camps.Mladic's army joined irregular Serb militias in dynamiting over 600 mosques , including the masterworksof European architecture and Bosnian heritage: the Colored Mosque in Foca (built in 1551) and theFerhadija Mosque in Banja Luka (1583). Mladic's men also dynamited Catholic churches throughoutthe area of occupation.In places he couldn't occupy, Mladic deliberately shelled hundreds of other Bosnian architecturaltreasures . The famous Ghazi Husrev Beg Mosque in Sarajevo (1531) was repeatedly targeted. InMostar, Mladic's army shelled the cathedral in Mostar, the Karadjoz Bey Mosque, entire historicaldistricts, as well as the regional archives of Herzegovina. The Jewish graveyard in Sarajevo was dug upand scattered all over by Mladic's troops. Mladic's troops annihilated, systematically, the ancientheritage of Trebinje, another city in Herzegovina. These shellings and demolitions were not the result ofcollateral damage. The targets were selected carefully and the areas around them were leftunscathed 12 . 12 This piece was originally posted on the internet newsgroup alt.current-events.bosnia on October 14, 1995. For information on the war on Bosnianculture, see Andras Riedlmayer, "Erasing the Past: The Destruction of Libraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina MIDDLE EAST STUDIES ASSOCIATIONBULLETIN, vol. 29 no. 1 (July 1995), pp. 7-11" and "Killing Memory: Bosnia's Cultural Heritage and its Destruction" VHS videocassette, 41 minutes(Haverford, PA: Community of Bosnia Foundation, 1994). Also see Rabia Ali and Lawrence Lifschultz, WHY BOSNIA (Pampleteer's Press, 1993). For ahistorical overview, see Noel Malcolm, BOSNIA: A SHORT HISTORY (New York University Press, 1994). Why would General Ratko Mladic spend four years destroying a culture that didn't exist in the firstplace?No possible reason. The idea is absurd. Mladic's four years of frantic destruction was an attempt todestroy something that very much existed and very much still exists.Mladic targeted the vibrant, powerful, and beautiful testimonies to Bosnian culture so that some day,advocates of religious apartheid in Bosnia, such as Henry Kissinger, could declare: "there is no Bosnianculture." People looking at the parking lots where mosques and churches and art museums and musicschools and libraries and manuscript collections once stood would say: "I guess Kissinger is right."And if there is no Bosnian culture, why not divide Bosnia, as Kissinger and General Mladic wish,between Croatia and Serbia, and herd the Muslims into a central ghetto? (How many non-Christianghettoes have survived in Europe since 1096, the first crusade?)The same Kissinger-type reasoning was used by advocates of apartheid in South Africa. There was no"African culture", they said, so why not put Africans on reservations called homelands and haveapartheid?The same approach was used during the extermination of the American Indian nations. There was noNative American Culture so why not put the American Indians on reservations or "ethncially cleanse"those who refuse to go to the reservations?There is only one problem with Kissinger's statement and his plan. As with South Africa and theAmerican Indians, so with Bosnia, cultures are hard to kill.You can kill people and you can dynamite mosques or desecrate cemeteries. You can build theconcentration camps and killing centers that are now being exposed before the world at the UN War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague. After the people have been "cleansed" (killed or driven into refugeecamps) and their monuments have been destroyed, you can, like Kissinger, claim these the culturenever existed in the first place.But you cannot kill the spirit of a great culture. Present-day South Africa is testimony to that. The verysurvival of the American Indian culture is testimony to that. And the perseverance and survival ofBosnians, rooted in their ancient and powerful culture that was made up of a variety of religions andcultural influences powerfully blended into a great culture, gives the lie to Kissinger.All the bombs, shells, concentration camps, rapes, and mass-killings of General Mladic have onlyserved to do one thing: to put Bosnian culture into the fire and steel it into purer and more resilientmetal 13 .And at a time when extremists of all sides in the U.S. are demanding apartheit, separation of races andreligions, and religious and racial wars--at a time when some people are saying "American culturedoesn't exist"-- Bosnian culture survives the overwhelming destructiveness of the Serb army, the betrayalby Croat extremists, the collaboration with the genocide by the NATO nations which could havestopped it in 1992, and the lie by the likes of Henry Kissinger.Bosnian culture is sending us a message.In the United States, if we want a society where people of different races, religion, and backgroundsshare a common culture and build a united nation, then we are Bosnians. If we insist that cultures arenot made by "ethnic cleansing" or apartheid and if we insist that division of people into ethnic,religious, and racial ghettoes is not a solution, we are Bosnians. If we insist that people of differentraces, religions, and background can work together and build a common culture, then we areBosnians.And if we sit back and allow the authors of genocide like General Mladic and the apostles of apartheitlike Henry Kissinger to triumph in Bosnia, we will not likely be able to save our own culture 14 . 13 For one example of the Bosnian response to destruction, see Sarajevo Expo 92, an exhibit of seventeen works by major Sarajevan artists createdduring the worst period of the shelling of Sarajevo. The exhibit is being displayed at various places in the U.S. by Aida Musanovic, one of the artists. 14 This short article is dedicated to the hundreds of Bosnians who have been killed while risking their lives to save art, manuscripts, and othertestimonies to their cultural heritage. Activité (7)

..........................................

Henry Kissinger
’’
ssLLiieessaabboouuttBBoossnniiaa,,KKoossoovvaaaannddTThheeBBaallkkaannss
n several articles of his and interviews that he gave during the Yugoslav wars,he criticized the United

States'policies in the Balkans,among other things for the recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a

sovereign state, which he described as a foolish act
[1]
.Most importantly he dismissed the notion of

Serbs,andCroats for that part, being aggressors or separatist, saying that "they can't be separatingfrom something that has never existed"
[2]
.In addition, he repeatedly warned the West of implicating

itself in a conflict that has its roots at least hundreds of years back in time, and said that the West woulddo better if it allowed the Serbs and Croats to join their respective countries
[2]
. This Kissinger position and statements provoked uncounted number of articles and was subjected tothorough refutation in numerous books and studies from prominent authors like Christopher Hitchens, Andras Riedlmayer,Michael A. Sells, Noel Malcolm,Norman Cigar, Rabia Ali, Lawrence Lifschultz, toname a few among many others.Michael A. Sells,professor of comparative religion at Haverford College in Pennsylvania, is author ofseveral articles on this subject, also wrote a book
[3]
in which among other he refute Kissinger's assertionsabout Bosnia and its history and culture. Also in his long article "The U.S., Bosnia, and Henry Kissinger'sLie" professor Sells leave no room for doubt regarding to Kissinger's assertions
[4][5][6]
. Noel Malcolm, Senior Research Fellow at Oxford University since 2002, English historian, writer, and columnist, he wrote"Bosnia: A Short Historiy"
[7]

[8]
.But most illustrious is comprehensive study of Andras Riedlmayer, HarvardUniversity Documentation Center, study on the War on Bosnian Culture, destruction of Bosnian cultureand history in Bosnian War ,describing a meticulously prepared and executed project of erasing of anytraces of ancient Bosnian culture and history
[5][9][10]
(also see, "Erasing the Past: The Destruction ofLibraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina - Middle East Studies Associations Bulletin, vol. 29 no. 1(July 1995), pp. 7-11" and "Killing Memory: Bosnia's Cultural Heritage and its Destruction" documentaryfilm 41 min. Haverford, PA: Community of Bosnia Foundation, 1994). Rabia Ali and Lawrence Lifschultzwrote on this subject in their book "Why Bosnia" (Pampleteer's Press, 1993).

Nonetheless, Kissinger shared similarly critical views on Western involvement in Kosovo.In particular, heheld a disparaging view of the Rambouillet Agreement:

The Rambouillet text, which called on Serbia to admit NATO troops throughout Yugoslavia ,was a provocation, an excuse to

start bombing. Rambouillet is not a document that any Serb could have accepted. It was a terrible diplomatic document that should never have been presented in that form.

Henry Kissinger
,
Daily Telegraph ,June 28, 1999


However, as the Serbs did not accept the Rambouillet text and NATO bombings started, he opted for

a continuation of the bombing as NATO's credibility was now at stake, but dismissed the usage ofground forces, claiming that it was not worth it
[11]
.
1

"Charlie Rose - A panel on the crisis in Bosnia" www.charlierose.com. 1994-11-28. Retrieved 2009-10-16.

2

"Charlie Rose - An interview with Henry Kissinger" www.charlierose.com. 1995-09-14. Retrieved 2009-10-16.

3

"The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia" University of California Press. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

4

"The U.S., Bosnia, and Henry Kissinger's Lie by Michael Sells" Foreign Affairs. 1995-10-16. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

5

"New York Times Forum - Bosnia's Cultural Heritage" www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

6

"New York Times Forum - Sells" www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

7

"Appease With Dishonor: Faulty History - Noel Malcolm, Norman Cigar, David Rieff, William E. Odom and Charles" Foreign Affairs.1995-11-11. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

8

"Is Kosovo Real: The Battle Over History Continues - Noel Malcolm, Aleksa Djilas" Foreign Affairs. 1995-11-11. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

9

"Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Bosnia 1992-1996 by Andras Riedlmayer" Cambridge, Massachusetts USA. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

10

"Andras Riedlmayer profile page with links to his works" www.h-net.org. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

11

"Charlie Rose - An hour with former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger" www.charlierose.com. 1999-04-12. Retrieved 2009-10-16.

TThheeUU..SS..,,BBoossnniiaa,,aannddHHeennrryyKKiissssiinnggeerr''ssLLiiee

Michael Sells
From: http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/postings/kissinger.html on July 12, 1998
Michael Sells Mon, 16 Oct 95
On the Charlie Rose Show, Sept 14, 1995, Henry Kissinger argued for what would be in effect an ethnic-partition and religious apartheid in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Kissinger urged a dividing up the countrybetween Croatia and Serbia and, in effect, forcing the Muslims (and any Bosnians who wanted a statenot based on "ethnic-cleansing") into a ghetto in the center. The basis of Kissinger's argument was hisclaim that "There is no Bosnian culture."Ironically, the person who has done most to disprove Kissinger's remark is none other than Serb GeneralRatko Mladic, who has spent four years busily trying to destroy the vast testimony to Bosnian culture.He burned down the National Library in Sarajevo with three days of shelling by incendiary grenades--the largest book burning in modern history. Over a million books and 100,000 manuscripts and rarebooks were burned, including much of the ancient South Slavic heritage of Bosnia.He selected out and shelled the Oriental Institute manuscript collection in Sarajevo, with its collectionof 5000 Bosnian manuscripts in Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Adzamijski (Bosnian Slavic writtenin Arabic script).He shelled repeatedly and deliberately the National Museum with its priceless collection of Bosnian art.A few objects, such as the Sarajevo Haggadah were saved by courageous Bosnians (Croat, Muslim,Serb, and Jewish) who risked their lives to save as much of their Bosnian cultural heritage as possible.One of his soldiers even lined up the Bosnian art collection of a Sarajevan artist (who was Serb) and"executed" them by drilling them with machine-gun fire.Mladic's soldiers selected out artists, writers, teachers, and scholars for particularly brutal tortures andkillings in his concentration camps.Mladic's army joined irregular Serb militias in dynamiting over 600 mosques , including the masterworksof European architecture and Bosnian heritage: the Colored Mosque in Foca (built in 1551) and theFerhadija Mosque in Banja Luka (1583). Mladic's men also dynamited Catholic churches throughoutthe area of occupation.In places he couldn't occupy, Mladic deliberately shelled hundreds of other Bosnian architecturaltreasures . The famous Ghazi Husrev Beg Mosque in Sarajevo (1531) was repeatedly targeted. InMostar, Mladic's army shelled the cathedral in Mostar, the Karadjoz Bey Mosque, entire historicaldistricts, as well as the regional archives of Herzegovina. The Jewish graveyard in Sarajevo was dug upand scattered all over by Mladic's troops. Mladic's troops annihilated, systematically, the ancientheritage of Trebinje, another city in Herzegovina. These shellings and demolitions were not the result ofcollateral damage. The targets were selected carefully and the areas around them were leftunscathed
12
.
12

This piece was originally posted on the internet newsgroup alt.current-events.bosnia on October 14, 1995. For information on the war on Bosnianculture, see Andras Riedlmayer, "Erasing the Past: The Destruction of Libraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina MIDDLE EAST STUDIES ASSOCIATIONBULLETIN, vol. 29 no. 1 (July 1995), pp. 7-11" and "Killing Memory: Bosnia's Cultural Heritage and its Destruction" VHS videocassette, 41 minutes(Haverford, PA: Community of Bosnia Foundation, 1994). Also see Rabia Ali and Lawrence Lifschultz, WHY BOSNIA (Pampleteer's Press, 1993). For ahistorical overview, see Noel Malcolm, BOSNIA: A SHORT HISTORY (New York University Press, 1994).



Why would General Ratko Mladic spend four years destroying a culture that didn't exist in the firstplace?No possible reason. The idea is absurd. Mladic's four years of frantic destruction was an attempt todestroy something that very much existed and very much still exists.Mladic targeted the vibrant, powerful, and beautiful testimonies to Bosnian culture so that some day,advocates of religious apartheid in Bosnia, such as Henry Kissinger, could declare: "there is no Bosnianculture." People looking at the parking lots where mosques and churches and art museums and musicschools and libraries and manuscript collections once stood would say: "I guess Kissinger is right."And if there is no Bosnian culture, why not divide Bosnia, as Kissinger and General Mladic wish,between Croatia and Serbia, and herd the Muslims into a central ghetto? (How many non-Christianghettoes have survived in Europe since 1096, the first crusade?)The same Kissinger-type reasoning was used by advocates of apartheid in South Africa. There was no"African culture", they said, so why not put Africans on reservations called homelands and haveapartheid?The same approach was used during the extermination of the American Indian nations. There was noNative American Culture so why not put the American Indians on reservations or "ethncially cleanse"those who refuse to go to the reservations?There is only one problem with Kissinger's statement and his plan. As with South Africa and theAmerican Indians, so with Bosnia, cultures are hard to kill.You can kill people and you can dynamite mosques or desecrate cemeteries. You can build theconcentration camps and killing centers that are now being exposed before the world at the UN War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague. After the people have been "cleansed" (killed or driven into refugeecamps) and their monuments have been destroyed, you can, like Kissinger, claim these the culturenever existed in the first place.But you cannot kill the spirit of a great culture. Present-day South Africa is testimony to that. The verysurvival of the American Indian culture is testimony to that. And the perseverance and survival ofBosnians, rooted in their ancient and powerful culture that was made up of a variety of religions andcultural influences powerfully blended into a great culture, gives the lie to Kissinger.All the bombs, shells, concentration camps, rapes, and mass-killings of General Mladic have onlyserved to do one thing: to put Bosnian culture into the fire and steel it into purer and more resilientmetal
13
.And at a time when extremists of all sides in the U.S. are demanding apartheit, separation of races andreligions, and religious and racial wars--at a time when some people are saying "American culturedoesn't exist"-- Bosnian culture survives the overwhelming destructiveness of the Serb army, the betrayalby Croat extremists, the collaboration with the genocide by the NATO nations which could havestopped it in 1992, and the lie by the likes of Henry Kissinger.Bosnian culture is sending us a message.In the United States, if we want a society where people of different races, religion, and backgroundsshare a common culture and build a united nation, then we are Bosnians. If we insist that cultures arenot made by "ethnic cleansing" or apartheid and if we insist that division of people into ethnic,religious, and racial ghettoes is not a solution, we are Bosnians. If we insist that people of differentraces, religions, and background can work together and build a common culture, then we areBosnians.And if we sit back and allow the authors of genocide like General Mladic and the apostles of apartheitlike Henry Kissinger to triumph in Bosnia, we will not likely be able to save our own culture
14
.
13

For one example of the Bosnian response to destruction, see Sarajevo Expo 92, an exhibit of seventeen works by major Sarajevan artists createdduring the worst period of the shelling of Sarajevo. The exhibit is being displayed at various places in the U.S. by Aida Musanovic, one of the artists.

14

This short article is dedicated to the hundreds of Bosnians who have been killed while risking their lives to save art, manuscripts, and othertestimonies to their cultural heritage.



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